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Diseases Transmitted From Mothers To Children (Part 1)

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There are many diseases that include mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.

There are many diseases that include mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding… The important thing is that they have to be early detected in order to have timely treatment for future mothers and avoid transmitting to babies.

Hepatitis B is one of those infectious diseases.

Hepatitis B is one of those infectious diseases.

Hepatitis B

Filterable B virus is a kind of viruses that is liver-directed. There are many ways that filterable B viruses can be transmitted from one to others, such as: mother-to-child transmission (the most important one), sexual transmission (the disease can be transmitted by the sexual or homosexual activities), blood or blood product transmission. Besides, if you are infected with the secretion of people who have the hepatitis B virus, or use the same injection needle that they used, you can have yourself suffered from hepatitis B, too.

Mothers who have hepatitis B before getting pregnant can transmit the virus to their children during pregnancy. The risk of transmitting the disease to the fetus can be up to 90% if there’s no protecting methods applied after birth. That is because the baby’s immune system, at that time, cannot produce resistance, so the baby tends to be infected with the hepatitis B virus.

While 90% of adults who have B hepatitis completely immune to the disease when they reach adulthood, and only 10% of them have chronic infection, children infected with B hepatitis virus from birth are just the opposite; 90% of these children will have chronic infection. This stage lasts for years and may not have the clinical manifestation, but in the end, it’ll lead to severe effects, such as cirrhosis, liver cancer…

The mother-to-child disease can be transmitted while breastfeeding.

The mother-to-child disease can be transmitted while breastfeeding.

In order not to transmit the hepatitis B virus to children, first of all, mothers who have hepatitis B must have their disease stabilized before getting pregnant and have their children vaccinated after birth. In addition, children can have an infection of anti-hepatitis B serum or vaccine, or both. The anti-hepatitis B vaccinating has to be in immunization schedule.

HIV infection

Mother-to-child transmission is one of the 3 HIV transmission modes. Mothers who have HIV can transmit the HIV virus to their children in 3 periods: pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding.

During pregnancy

At the time the fetus is in the 18th week, the rate of HIV transmitting through placenta is quite high.

At the time the fetus is in the 18th week, the rate of HIV transmitting through placenta is quite high.

HIV is a mother-to-child disease: the mother’s blood, through placenta, goes into the fetus’s body. The HIV transmission during pregnancy can occur as soon as the fetus in its 8 weeks old and lasts to the end of pregnancy. However, it’s realized that at the time the fetus is in the 18th week, the rate of HIV transmitting through placenta is quite high. About 20-30% of children who are infected with HIV virus from birth are considered to be transmitted through placenta. This rate can increase, in other words, the risk of HIV transmission through placenta increase depends on the mother’s age’s increase or the moment that the mother is infected with HIV virus; if she is infected with HIV virus during pregnancy in which the level of HIV virus in blood is very high, the risk will increase. Similarly, if the mother is in the late stage of HIV which is AIDS, and get pregnant, the risk will increase, too.

During childbirth

Although there is certain percentage of children who are infected with HIV from birth, many studies show that the mother-to-child transmission of HIV often occurs late, during childbirth or at the time the child passes through the mother’s genital tract, it is directly interfered with the mother’s vaginal discharge or blood. That is because, when labor starts, the amniotic fluid, matrix fluid, and vaginal fluid will penetrate into the child. The HIV can transmit from the vaginal ulcers to the infant’s body. It’s also believed that the strong uterine contractions can push the blood that is infected with HIV to the child’s circulation.

About 50-60% of children infected with HIV from the mother are considered to have HIV transmission during labor. In difficult delivery cases, the labor lasts longer, the mother’s soft part is damaged, the baby is scratched or has trauma, which all increase the HIV transmission risk in children.

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